When you type http://www.abc.com, the browser check its cache if the website has been previously accessed. If yes, then the page is rendered from the cache, if not the browser makes a DNS request to OS. The OS sends request to the service provider for the requested DNS:
1) the request goes to the root server (which root domain has the information)
2)the request then goes to the TLD servers (which provides the exact location of the domain requested)
3)the request then goes to the name server and checks zone registry to return the IP of the requested domain.
Once the IP is retrieved. The browser established a TCP/IP connection and will start sending the data.
TCP/IP has following processes:
1) Handshake in form of client hello and server hello (high level detail of protocol and unique identifiers)
2) server send certificate
3) certificate is verified
4) The data is broken into several packets and then on top of that we add sender’s and reciever’s address, along with mac address.